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Planet.osm is the OpenStreetMap data in one file: all the nodes, ways and relations that make up our map. A new version is released every week. It's a big file (on 2023-02-01, the plain OSM XML variant takes over 1696.6 GB when uncompressed from the 123.4 GB bzip2-compressed or 67.3 GB PBF-compressed downloaded data file).
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The two main formats used are PBF or bzip2-compressed OSM XML. PBF (Protocol Buffer Format) is a compact binary format that is smaller to download and much faster to process and should be used when possible. Most common tools using OSM data support PBF.
If you have bandwidth and disk space as well as BitTorrent client which supports Broadcatching (RSS), and would like to help with reducing load on OSM servers and improving download speeds for everyone, please join the BitTorrent swarm by using following RSS feeds (first and second are probably the most popular, but it you have resources please do share all of them):
For security reasons, consider using HTTPS sources if available, rather than HTTP or FTP. Some Internet users may experience problems with IPv4-only sources when their Internet access (notably mobile accesses) offers native routing only though IPv6, and where IPv4 is only supported by their ISP using temporary NAT sessions via proxies (which may not be reliable for very large file downloads, even if HTTPS is used).
All files also come with a .md5 signature file. Use it to check your downloads (especially when using FTP: using RSYNC or Torrent will generally avoid download issues such as truncated files) ! You should first check for the existence of the .md5 file before trying to download actual data (which may sometimes be in a transient state while a mirror is being synchronized with a recent dump). Also make sure your browser or downloader client supports the transfer of large files over 2 GB, as well as your local OS and file system for storing such files.
Osmosis and osm2pgsql allow you to use the files in bz2-compressed form. If you need to unpack it from bz2 format, use 7-zip on Windows; on Linux just type bzip2 -d planet.osm.bz2; or your OS may support double-click unpacking. See Wikipedia's list of compression programs.
During download, the network will be your bottleneck. Once you have the file you will need to unpack it, and then disk I/O will be your bottleneck. Or you can work with the bzip'ed file, but then the CPU will be your bottleneck. If you have sufficient space to unpack the full planet file, you can save a lot of time and disk thrashing by unpacking it on the fly while downloading it: try curl -L _latest.osm.bz2 pbzip2 -cd >planet_latest.osm.
In most cases, using import tools supporting the PBF format will be a faster and more efficient solution. They can be processed directly without unpacking to plain OSM XML format and PBF-compressed OSM files are always smaller than bzip2-compressed OSM files and faster to download.
wget: Alternatively to curl, wget -O - may be used. Due to the size of the planet files, older distributions of wget may fail to work since they may not support file sizes larger than 2 GiB, and attempting to download files larger than that will report a negative file size and fail.
Due to performance reasons it isn't possible to get a fully consistent snapshot of the database. Although the dump is run in a transaction, the isolation level required for a "snapshot"-style dump dramatically increases the running time. You might find that, if you have been editing while the export has been running, that the way may be in there but the nodes are not. You can take a planet file and apply the daily diffs using Osmosis to create a consistent planet file (however you may still have some problems with old bad data in OpenStreetMap from before the introduction of the API 0.6).
This is perfectly normal depending on the settings used in the extraction process. There are two options; either the ways at the boundary have been truncated (such as in the GeoFabrik downloads), or the nodes are just left out and the ways are left as is (for example the CloudMade downloads).